"Kota" () previously known as ''Kotah'', is a city located in the southeast of northern Indian States and territories of India of Rajasthan. It is located about south of the state capital, Jaipur, situated on the banks of Chambal River. With a population of over 1.2 million, it is the List of cities in Rajasthan by population after Jaipur and Jodhpur, List of most populous cities in India and List of million-plus urban agglomerations in India. It serves as the administrative headquarters for Kota district and Kota Division. Kota is a major coaching hub of the country for competitive examination preparations and has a number of engineering and medical coaching institutes.
The city of Kota was once the part of the erstwhile List of Rajput dynasties and states. It became a separate princely state in the 17th century. Apart from the several monuments that reflect the glory of the town, Kota is also known for its palaces and gardens. Mahesh Vijay of Bhartiya Janta Party is the current Mayor of Kota. In 2013, Kota was ranked the second most livable city in the state (after Jaipur) and forty-first in the country among 50 cities. The city was also included among 98 Indian cities for Smart Cities Mission initiated by Indian prime minister Narendra Modi in 2015 and was listed at 67th place after results of first round were released following which top 20 cities were further selected for funding in the immediate financial year. It is popular among the youth of India for its coaching institutes for engineering and medical entrance examinations. Many students come to Kota to prepare for the IIT JEE and National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (Undergraduate).
The history of the city dates back to the 12th century AD when Rao Deva, a Chauhan Rajput chieftain belonging to the Hada (clan) clan conquered the territory and founded Bundi and Hadoti. Later, in the early 17th century, during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir, the ruler of Bundi - Rao Ratan Singh, gave the smaller principality of Kota to his son, Madho Singh. Since then Kota became a hallmark of the Rajput gallantry and culture. of five thousand and being the first in his dynasty to have the title of Maharao. Zalim Singh, a diplomat and statesman, emerged as another prominent figure of the state in the 18th century. Although initially being a general of Kota's army, he rose to the regent of the kingdom after the king died leaving a minor on the throne. He remained a direct administrator of the state. In 1817, a treaty of friendship was signed between him and the British on his condition of carving out part from the existing state for his descendants resulting in Jhalawar State coming into existence in 1838. It covers an area of 527 km2. It has an average elevation of 271 metres (889 ft). The district is bound on the north and north west by Sawai Madhopur, Tonk district and Bundi districts. The Chambal River separates these districts from Kota district, forming the natural boundary.
The city of Kota is situated at a centre of the southeastern region of Rajasthan a region very widely known as Hadoti, the land of the Hada (clan). Kota lies along the banks of the Chambal river on a high sloping tableland forming a part of the Malwa Plateau. The general slope of the city is towards the north. The comparatively rocky, barren and elevated land in the southern part of city descends towards a plain agricultural land in the north. The Mukundara hills run from southeast to northwest axis of the town.
Kota has fertile land and greenery with irrigation facilities through canals. The two main canals; called as left main canal (towards Bundi) and right main canal (towards Baran) originate from the reservoir created by Kota Barrage. The tributaries of these canals make up a network in the city and surrounding areas of [Rajasthan] and [Madhya Pradesh] and supplements the irrigation of these areas. The monsoon season follows with comparatively lower temperatures, but higher humidity and frequent, torrential downpours. The monsoons subside in October and temperatures rise again. The brief, mild winter starts in late November and lasts until the last week of February. Temperatures hover between 26.7 °C (max) to 12.0 °C (min). This can be considered the best time to visit Kota because of intense heat in the summer.
According to 2011 Census of India, Kota City had a population of 1,001,694, of which male and female are 528,601 and 473,093 respectively. The urban agglomeration of Kota consists of city only. The sex ratio was 895 and 12.14% were under six years of age. The effective literacy rate was 82.80%, with male literacy at 89.49% and female literacy at 75.33%.
According to 2011 census, Hinduism is the majority religion in the city practised by about 80.5% of the population. Muslims form large minorities (15.9%) followed by Jainism (2.2%), Sikhism (0.9%) and Christianity (0.4%). Its clientele includes public sector entities such as the Indian Railways, BSNL and VSNL.
The District court provides court and notary services.
The city is the trade centre for an area in which cotton, millet, wheat, coriander and oilseeds are grown; industries include cotton and oilseed milling, textile weaving, distilling, dairying, and the manufacture of metal handcrafts. Kota also has an extensive industry of stone-polishing (tiles) of a stone called Kota Stone, used for the floor and walls of residential and business buildings. Since last 15 years Kota has emerged as an Education hub of the country as producing excellent results in IIT-JEE and medical entrance exams.
Weaving in Kota was started by Maharana Bhimdev in the 18th century.
The Kota saris like most traditional piece of work had started becoming lost before designer Vidhi Singhania moved to Kota and started working with the workers to revive its market. Many textile shops in the city sell different varieties of Kota doria. These saris have become one of the trademarks of the city.
The fine-grained variety of limestone quarried from Kota district is known as Kota stone, with rich greenish-blue and brown colours. Kota stone is tough, non-water-absorbent, non-slip, and non-porous. The varieties include Kota Blue Natural, Kota Blue Honed, Kota Blue Polished, Kota Blue Cobbles, Kota Brown Natural and Kota Brown Polished.
Kota is one of the industrial hubs in northern India, with chemical, cement, engineering and power plants based there. The total number of industrial units in the district in 2010-11 stood at 12908 with 705 registered units. The district power plants show annual growth of 15-20 % due to their strategic locations.# Rajasthan Atomic Power Station in Rawatbhata Chittorgarh district (65 kilometres from Kota) - nuclear# Anta Thermal Power Station in Antah Baran district (50 kilometers from Kota) - gas# Jawahar Sagar Power Plant - hydro# Kalisindh Thermal Power Station (in Jhalrapatan, Jhalawar) - thermal
The city is specially known in India as a center for preparation of various national level competitive examinations through which the students seek admissions in various engineering and medical colleges of the country. Often termed as the "Kota Factory", the town contains more than 40 large coaching institutes for aspiring students trying to pass entrance exams for Indian Institutes of Technology, through the IIT JEE, other engineering colleges and prominent medical colleges of India.
Since 2000, the city has emerged as a popular coaching destination for competitive exams preparation and for profit educational services. The education sector of Kota has become one of the major contributors to the city's economy. Kota is popularly referred to as "the coaching capital of India". Over 1.5 lakh students from all over the country flock every year towards the city for preparation of various exams such as Indian Institutes of Technology-Joint Entrance Examination, National Eligibility and Entrance Test and AIIMS etc. Many hostels and PGs are located in Kota near the vicinity of coaching centres for students. Students live here for 2-3 years and prepare for the exams. The annual turnover of the Kota coaching industry is about ₹1500 crore.
Kota's emergence as a coaching hub began in 1985 when Vinod Kumar Bansal, an engineer working for J. K. Synthetics Ltd, set up Bansal Classes that eventually became Vinod Kumar Bansal.
In the past few years, reports of students committing suicide in the city have increased. As per reports, students feel stressed and get pressurized in order to crack their target competitive exam. As per National Crime Records Bureau report of 2014, 45 suicide cases of students were reported in the city. In year 2015, 17 such cases were found. For the same cause, many coaching centers have also appointed counsellors to help students.
Some of the popular visitor attractions in and nearby the city include Chambal Garden, Seven Wonders Park, Kishore Sagar Lake, Jag Mandir, Garh Palace, Chatra Vilas Garden, Godavari Dham Temple, Garadia Mahadev Temple, Kota Zoological Park, Maharao Madho Singh Museum, Kota Government Museum, Brijraj Bhawan Palace, Abheda Mahal, Azamgarh Gurudwara Sahib, Hanging Rock Fountain, Royal Cenotaphs at Keshar Bagh, Kota Barrage, Adharshila Dargah, Darrah National Park and Jawahar Sagar Dam.
Kota is well connected with road and rail to all major cities within Rajasthan as well as those located outside the state.
National highway No.12 (Jaipur—Jabalpur) and National Highway No.76 pass through the city. National Highway No.76 is a part of East-West Corridor. The total road length in Kota district is 2,052 km. as of March 2011.
Kota is well connected to all the major cities of India with rail.Kota Junction is one of the divisions in West Central Railway. It is a station on the New Delhi-Mumbai main line. There are four railway stations within Kota and in its vicinity. Another suburban station of South Kota city is Dakaniya Talav Railway station which has a stoppage of Avadh Express, Dehradun Express and Ranthambore Express.
The city is a halt for over 150 trains, including Mumbai Rajdhani Express, August Kranti Rajdhani Express, Mumbai New Delhi Duronto Express, Indore-Jaipur Express, Mewar Express (Delhi - Udaipur City Express), Dayodaya Express (Jaipur - Jabalpur Express / Ajmer - Jabalpur Express), Ranthambore Express, Hazrat Nizamuddin - Indore Express, Garbha Express, Marusagar Express (Ajmer - Ernakulam Express / Ernakulam Express), Jaipur - Mysore Express, Jaipur - Chennai Express, Jaipur - Coimbatore Express, Jodhpur - Puri Express, Bhopal - Jodhpur.
The Delhi—Mumbai railway line passes through the Kota Junction.The district has 148.83 km of railway line in the Kota — Ruthia section, 98.72 km on Nagda—Mathura, Uttar Pradesh (Mumbai-Delhi) section and 24.26 km on Kota —Chittorgarh section.
A broad-gauge railway facility between Kota and Jodhpur via Jaipur exists.
Kota Airport has had no scheduled services operating since 1999. The nearest international airport is Jaipur International Airport situated 250 km away from Kota. A new airport construction plan was build and it things go fine there might be a greenfield airport in Kota scheduled for 2022
The city is home to International Cricket Stadium located in Nayapura area. Among several matches, six Ranji Trophy matches have been played in the stadium. The stadium also hosted RCL T20 2016, an inter state cricket league with six participating teams.
There are five major regional TV Channels in Kota., DD Rajasthan, STN Rajasthan, ETV Network,India news Rajasthan, Jan TVA wide range of other Hindi, English and other language channels are accessible via Cable television and Direct-broadcast satellite. Dish TV, Tata Sky, Radiant Digitek, Airtel digital TV are entertainment services in Kota.
Major daily newspapers in Kota include:, Rajasthan Patrika (Hindi), Dainik Bhaskar (Hindi), Dainik Navajyoti (Hindi), The Times of India (English language), Hindustan Times (English)
There are five radio stations in Kota, with four broadcasting on the Frequency modulation band, and one All India Radio station broadcasting on the Amplitude modulation band., BIG FM 92.7, My FM (94.3 MHz), FM Tadka (95.0 MHz), All India Radio (102.0 MHz), Radio City (Indian radio station) (91.1 MHz)