Sitamarhi is considered by many to be the birthplace of Sita, the main character of the epic ''Ramayana''; a temple dedicated to Sita is located at punaura dham Sitamarhi. A rock-cut sanctuary from the great Mauryan Empire period is found near Sitamarhi.
In 1875, the Sitamarhi sub-district was created within the Muzaffarpur district. Sitamarhi was detached from the Muzaffarpur district and became a separate district on 11 December 1972. It is situated in the northern part of Bihar. The district headquarters is located in Dumra, Sitamarhi, south of Sita temple.
Rama Navami is a spring festival in Dumra, widely celebrated with a large fair held to mark the occasion. Also in janki mandir a marriage ceremony of lord ram and sita mata happens every year. Sama Chakeva is a prominent winter festival dedicated to celebrate brother-sister relationships. This is a major cultural event with marriage ceremonies and many cultural rituals that take much preparation.
Sitamarhi, located at , has an average elevation of .
There are multiple small towns that are famous in Sitamarhi, like Bairgania and Sursand which is located at Indo-Nepal border and is very famous. Few other famous places in Sitamarhi region are Bath Asli , Sonbarsa,Sheohar,Bajpatti,Pupri and Parihar are very good town. Dumra is near Sitamarhi which is known for all the government offices.
Riga village is close to this town and is known for suger mills.
Sitamarhi city has a total population of around 106,093. There are around 56,693 males, and 49,400 females. The amount of literate males are 39,537, and the amount of literate females are 29,970. In total 69,507 people are literate. The average literacy rate is 77.03 % in total, 81.98 % for males, and 71.33 % for females. The sexratio is 871. The child sexratio is 872.
National Highway 77 (India) connects the area to the Muzaffarpur district and Patna. National Highways 77, 104, and other roads connect to the adjoining districts. State highways link it to Madhubani district in the east and Sheohar in the west.
Sitamarhi Junction railway station is a five-platform station on the Darbhanga-Raxaul-Narkatiaganj line, which was converted to broad gauge in February 2014. Another broad-gauge track connects Sitamarhi to Muzaffarpur. Direct train services are available from Sitamarhi railway junction to places such as New Delhi, Kolkata, Varanasi, Lucknow, Guwahati (Kamakhya), Hyderabad, Kanpur and Mumbai.
The nearest airport to Sitamarhi is the Jay Prakash Narayan International Airport which is about away.
Sitamarhi is connected to cities in and around Bihar by state-owned transport services. Many private buses (both AC and non-AC) operate between Sitamarhi and Patna.
Sitamarhi has an All India Radio (AIR) relay station known as Akashvani Sitamarhi, broadcasting on FM frequencies.